As lighting is an essential aspect of illuminating the night environment, with the advent of the technological era, lighting systems have become increasingly advanced, and people’s demands have also grown. Consequently, the lighting requirements for different places may vary.

In designing lighting sources, the energy efficiency of the selected light source and ballast should not fall below the corresponding energy efficiency standard’s energy-saving evaluation value. The power density LPD (Lumen per square foot) restriction for architectural night scene lighting should comply with the current industry standards.

Selection of Light Sources:

Indoor Spaces:

(1) It should comply with the prescribed illuminance standards to ensure that each indoor space has appropriate lighting. For example, living rooms (or lounges) need higher illuminance as they serve guests, host family gatherings, and accommodate work and study needs. Dining areas require slightly higher illuminance to prevent accidents during meals, while bedrooms need lower illuminance to facilitate rest.

(2) Efforts should be made to create environmental atmosphere and enhance spatial perception through lighting methods, fixtures, and different light colors. For instance, using various spotlights can generate strong, focused brightness contrasts, making the indoor space lively and active. Employing diffuse lights with soft light colors, such as those based on reflective light troughs, can create a tranquil, relaxing, and cozy atmosphere. Classic light fixtures can add an air of elegance and magnificence to the surroundings, while simple light fixtures can create a modest and peaceful ambiance. In colder regions, warmer color temperature light sources can be used to add warmth, while in hotter regions, cooler color temperature light sources can be used to create a refreshing ambiance.

(3) Lighting can also evoke different spatial perceptions in people. Generally, rooms with higher illuminance and brightness feel more spacious.

Outdoor Spaces:

(1) Due to the complex outdoor working environment, LED outdoor lighting fixtures must be designed with consideration for environmental factors such as temperature, ultraviolet rays, humidity, rain, dust, and chemical gases. Currently, most domestically produced LED fixtures (mainly streetlights) are assembled using multiple series and parallel connections of 1W LEDs, a method known as packaging technology. Assembling with 30W, 50W, or even larger modules is employed to achieve the required power, and these LEDs are encapsulated with epoxy resin.

(2) It is essential to select materials with good thermal conductivity, such as aluminum or aluminum alloys, copper or copper alloys, and other suitable alloys. Waterproof, dustproof, anti-aging measures, and stainless-steel bolt fastening should be considered while referring to the latest outdoor lighting fixture technical specifications and urban road lighting design standards.

(3) For landscape lighting installed within 20 meters from the external walls of buildings, the grounding form should be consistent with the indoor system. For distances greater than 20 meters from the external walls of buildings, the TT grounding form is recommended. Additionally, outdoor lighting should use a TN low-voltage power supply system. The arrangement of lighting control boxes (control points) should consider the power supply radius and the necessary voltage drop to the endpoint to avoid the lamps’ malfunction due to undervoltage.

Lighting fixture selection

Outdoor Spaces:

(1) Road Lamp

Applicable places: highways, bridges, parking lots, stadiums, freight yards, ports, airports and squares, etc.

(2) Garden Light

Applicable places: urban slow lane, narrow lane, residential neighborhoods, tourist attractions, residential neighborhoods, parks, campuses, gardens, villas, botanical gardens, plazas and other public places of outdoor lighting.

(3) Floodlights

Applicable places:Large area work field and mine, building outline, stadium, overpass, park and flower bed, etc.

Indoor Spaces:

Indoor lighting fixtures are mainly ceiling lamps, chandeliers, wall lamps, spotlights, floor lamps. The ceiling lamp or chandelier is the main source of light indoors, other lamps are auxiliary light source.

(1)According to the installation method can generally be divided into recessed ceiling lights, chandeliers, lamps, movable lamps, architectural lighting and other six.

(2) According to the light source can be divided into incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, high-pressure discharge lamps and other three categories.

(3) According to the use of the place can be divided into civil lights, construction lights, industrial and mining lamps, automotive lamps, marine lamps, stage lamps and so on.

(4) According to the light distribution cold can be divided into direct lighting type, semi-direct lighting type, full diffuse lighting type and indirect lighting type.

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