Global energy shortages and environmental pollution situation, LED lights with its energy-saving and environmentally friendly features have a wide range of applications, in the field of lighting LED light-emitting products are attracting people’s attention. Generally speaking, LED lights work whether stable, good or bad quality, and the lamp body itself is critical to heat dissipation, the current market of high brightness LED lamps heat, often using natural heat dissipation, the effect is not ideal. LED light source to create LED lamps, LED, heat dissipation structure, driver, lens composition, so heat dissipation is also an important part of the LED if the LED can not be very good heat dissipation, it will affect the life expectancy. If the LED does not dissipate heat well, its lifespan will also be affected.

High brightness LED working principle and heat generation:

High brightness LED is a semiconductor light-emitting device, through the current through the semiconductor material when the electron – hole complex process, the conversion of electrical energy into light energy. However, this conversion process is not completely efficient, part of the electrical energy will be converted into thermal energy, resulting in heat generated by the LED chip.

The effect of heat dissipation on high brightness LEDs:

  1. The brightness of LEDs decreases as the temperature rises. When the temperature of the LED chip is too high, the efficiency of electron-hole compounding decreases, resulting in diminished light output. Therefore, effective heat dissipation can reduce the temperature of the LED chip and keep its brightness and light output stable.
  2. High-temperature environments can have a negative impact on the life of LEDs. materials and components in LED chips are prone to aging and failure at high temperatures, thus shortening the life of LEDs. Proper thermal design can reduce the temperature of the LED chip, extend the life of the LED and improve its reliability.
  3. The temperature difference between the LED chip and the heat sink may cause thermal expansion and mechanical stress. If the heat dissipation is poor, the temperature difference will lead to a mismatch between the chip and the heat sink, generating mechanical stress that can damage the LED chip. Good thermal design can effectively reduce the temperature difference and reduce the impact of mechanical stress on the LED chip.

Heat is concentrated in the very small size of the chip, the chip temperature rises, causing non-uniform distribution of thermal stress, chip luminous efficiency and fluorescent powder excitation efficiency decline; when the temperature exceeds a certain value, the device failure rate is an exponential law increase. Statistics show that the component temperature rises every 2 ℃, the reliability decreased by 10%. When more than one LED dense arrangement of white light lighting system, the heat dissipation problem is more serious. Solving the heat management problem has become a prerequisite for high brightness LED applications.

Relationship between chip size and heat dissipation:

The most direct way to improve the brightness of the power LED display is to increase the input power, and in order to prevent the saturation of the active layer must correspondingly increase the size of the p-n junction; increase the input power will inevitably make the junction temperature rise, which in turn reduces the quantum efficiency. Single-tube power increase depends on the device will heat from the p-n junction out of the ability to maintain the existing chip materials, structure, packaging process, current density on the chip remains unchanged and equivalent heat dissipation conditions, increase the size of the chip alone, the junction temperature will continue to rise.

The impact of heat dissipation on high brightness LEDs cannot be ignored. Reasonable heat dissipation design can reduce the temperature of the LED chip, maintain the stability of its brightness and light output, extend the service life of the LED, and improve the reliability of the LED.

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